History of creation and development of the Parliament of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR).
The formation of state power bodies of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR) is unique. It has no analogues on the whole post-Soviet territory.
The state system was formed:
If the formation of the state system of independent republic of the former USSR was based on the well-regulated system of the republican power bodies, then the structuring of the pridnestrovian state started from nothing.
The first years of the state formation are really people’s spontaneous creativity; the labor collectives and their leaders played the key role. The lack of experience in public administration, a shortage of skillful specialists, a rapid development of events, and the absence of the legislative and normative-methodic base at the stage of formation of the republic affected the composition and quality of documents.
The beginning of the history of state institutions of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic is associated with the political events of the 1980’s and the early 1990’s. The transition of the economy to new methods of management (self-financing) and the enhancement of the role of the collective in management (the Council of labor collectives) led to strengthening of the local self-government. It resulted in the local and regional economic independence.
In the conditions of creation of multinational states and disintegration of the common state, the economic independence of the region ensured the protection of rights and advantages of the peoples of Pridnestrovie and the basis for creation of an independent state. Precisely the labour collectives of the enterprises, institutions and organizations led by the Council of labour collectives (CLC), united into the Joint Council of labour collectives (JCLC) became the political foundation for the system of government in 1989. The association of directors of the industrial enterprises of Tiraspol region created in February, 1990 became the economic basis for formation of the government. The leaders of those two public organizations began the struggle for the rights of all Pridnestrovian workers. They came to the city and district Councils of People's Deputies and began the formation of the local government, the Consultative Council under Tiraspol Executive Committee and the Coordinating Council of People's Deputies of all levels of Pridnestrovie. They took all preparatory measures for the creation of the Republic and formation of the supreme power bodies.
On September 2, 1990, the second Extraordinary congress of People's Deputies of all levels of Pridnestrovie «expressing the will of the multinational population of Pridnestrovie expressed at the referendums and meetings of citizens» between 1989 and 1990, respecting and recognizing the rights to sovereignty and self-determination of all peoples of Pridnestrovie, understanding the historical responsibility for the fate of the Pridnestrovian people with their historical culture and traditions and with a view to creating conditions for preserving the Moldavian nation being guided by the article 2 of the Constitution of the USSR establishing sovereignty of the people the Second Extraordinary congress of people’s deputies of all levels of Pridnestrovie proclaimed the formation of a sovereign state of Pridnestrovian Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic as a part of the renewed Union.
Since then (the 2nd of September, 1990) the process of creation of the state machinery has begun. The authority was transferred to the Tiraspol city administration.
The preparations and elections for the Supreme Council of PMSSR were necessary for establishing the supreme power body – the Supreme Council. The II Extraordinary Congress of People's Deputies of all levels of Pridnestrovie elected the Interim Supreme Council. It comprised 50 members. It was authorized to provide organization and efficient government of the republic till the December 1st, 1990.
The Supreme Council was tasked to elect the Chairman of the Supreme Council, the Public prosecutor, the State arbitrator, the Minister of Internal Affairs and the chairman of the State Security Committee, and also to appoint the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Republic and to appoint the members of the Presidium.
On September 3rd, 1990 the Presidium of the Supreme Council comprising 18 persons headed by the Chairman and his 3 vice-chairmen were elected, the following persons were appointed:
The parliamentary commission for the establishment of economic relations, the commission for protection of the law and order and socialist legality, working groups on assistance to the militia were set up.
Smirnov Igor Nikolaevich, the director of the Tiraspol plant «Electromash» of the Union subordination was elected chairman of Tiraspol city Council of People's Deputies, in March 1990 he was elected chairman of the Interim Supreme Council, he was elected chairman of the Coordinative Council for the social and economic development of the region in June, 1990.
Volkova Anna Zakharovna, Glebov Vitaly Ivanovich and Karaman Alexander Akimovich were elected vice-chairmen of the Interim Supreme Council.
Moroz Stanislav Ivanovich was appointed acting Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Republic.
About 60 important resolutions were adopted under the Temporary Supreme Council and its Presidium between the September 2nd and 20th November 1990
On November 29, 1990 the Supreme Council legalized them in view of independence of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic.
The Constitutional commission of 24 deputies was set up for drafting the PMR Constitution by the Decree № 9 of September 11, 1990. On the same day the Central Electoral Committee was established under the Resolution #21.
After the elections to the Supreme Council of PMSSR on November 25, 1990 the Supreme Council lost powers.
The Declaration on sovereignty of PMSSR and the Decree on state power of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic of December, 8th, 1990 were approved at the first session of the Supreme Council. The main principles of exercising the state power were specified in those documents.
The Supreme Council was proclaimed the Supreme legislative and control body of the government in the Republic.
Under the Constitution 1991 the following issues fell within the jurisdiction of the Supreme Council:
The Supreme Council was elected for a 5-year term and consisted of two equal chambers: the Council of the Republic and the Council of nationalities
The 1st Supreme Council of PMR was made up of 64 deputies elected by the constituencies with an approximately equal number of the population.
The Supreme Council of PMR elected the Supreme Council Chairman of the PMR, his first vice-chairman and vice-chairmen, and also the standing committees. Each chamber of the Supreme Council of PMR elected the chairman and vice-chairmen, set up standing commissions.
The Supreme Council’s decisions are enacted as laws and resolutions. Between the PMR Supreme Council sessions the Presidium of the Supreme Council – a standing body accountable to the Supreme Council - exercised the powers of the supreme legislative body.
The Supreme Council Presidium was responsible for summoning the Supreme Council to regular spring and autumn sessions. The session’s duration depended on the character of discussed issues.
The first session of the 1st Supreme Council of PMR took place on November, 29th, 1990. Igor Nikolaevich Smirnov was elected first Supreme Council Chairman of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic
On November 29th, 1990 Gonchar Vladimir Alexandrovich – the deputy of the Rybnitsa district, the Chairman of the Council of the Republic assumed responsibilities of the Chairman of the Supreme Council. On January, 30th, 1991 the fifth session of the 1st Supreme Council of PMR elected Marakutsa Grigory Stepanovich as the Chairman of the Supreme Council executing the duties of the Chairman of the Supreme Council on November, 29th, 1990.
There were 52 CPSU members among the deputies, 11 – non-Party men, 2 women.
53 deputies had university diplomas, 7 people received incomplete higher and secondary special education and 3 people got secondary education. There were 5 workers among the deputies
6 deputies had a degree in science, an academic status.
21 deputies are workers in industry, construction, transport and communication spheres. 13 deputies represented a non-production sphere. 16 people are employees of the state and public organizations. The agriculture is represented by 12 deputies.
The deputies age structure was as follows: 3 people under 30, 44 people under 50, 16 people over 50.
People of 7different nationalities were among the deputies of the Supreme Council of PMR, including: Russians – 25, Ukrainians -21, Moldavians – 12, Bulgarian– 1, Turkmen – 1, Gagauzians – 2, Jew – 1.
There was a Hero of the Socialistic Labor among the deputies and 25 people were awarded with the orders and medals of the USSR
The Council of the Republic included 33 deputies. V.A. Gonchar was elected Chairman of the Council of Republic.
The Council of Republic comprised the following commissions:
The Council of Nationalities comprised 28 deputies. A.A. Karaman was elected first Chairman of the Council of Nationalities.
The Council of Nationalities set up the following Commissions:
Besides, the Credentials Committee and the Supreme Council Committees were made up of the deputies of both chambers:
The parliamentary procedure of the Supreme Council and its Presidium, standing committees and commissions is regulated by the standing orders. On May 6, 1991 the Supreme Council of the PMSSR considering the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Soviet Socialistic Republic an integral part of the USSR set up the commission for participation in drafting and ratification of the Union treaty under the direction of the Chairman of the Supreme Council G.S.Marakutsa and Chairman of the Republic I.N.Smirnov.
19 deputies were appointed as plenipotentiaries of the Pridnestrovian MSSR.
On October 1991 the Central Republican Commission for holding of the national referendum (voting) on independence of the Republic was established by the Supreme Council of PMSSR. The Referendum took place on December 1, 1991 concurrently with the first elections of the President of PMR.
On December 18, 1991 the Supreme Council approved the formation of the Commonwealth of independent states and expressed willingness to join this Commonwealth.
On May 12, 1992 the Supreme Council set up the standing commission for control over law enforcement activities and all militarized units of PMR.
On November 1992 the Supreme Council established the constitutional commission made up of 19 deputies headed by the Chairman of the Commission G.S.Marakutsa and his vice-chairman A.A.Karaman for drafting changes and amendments to the Constitution of PMR.
On December 1992 the structure of the Supreme Council committees and commissions was changed.